ACT main banner
Education and resources

DOWNLOAD THE FOLLOWING ACT LITERATURE:

SEPTEMBER 2010: IS INVESTIGATING ANIMAL CRUELTY WORTH IT?
This newsletter looks at why investigating crimes against animals is so difficult and draws some parallels between it and crimes against children.

FEBRUARY 2010: "DOGPATCH," THE INTERNET AND THE FALLACY OF ANIMAL CRUELTY REPORTING. This newsletter examines how rumors distorted the truth about a "wildcat dumping" ground south of Tucson with tales of animal cruelty conspiracy spread anonymously by postings on Craigslist and other internet chat rooms.

FEBRUARY 2009: FROM VICTIM TO VICTORY – OUR SUCCESS STORIES
This newsletter examines some of the cases investigated by ACT member agencies and how near-tragedy was transformed into triumph for the animals and officers involved.

CHRONOLOGY OF IMPORTANT RESEARCH ON ANIMAL CRUELTY AND INTERPERSONAL VIOLENCE

1966- Hellman & Blackman. Established that cruelty to animals is part of a triad of behaviors useful for predicting criminal behavior.
1971- Tapia.
1977- Rigdon & Tapia. Provided the first clear description and systematic study of children who commit animal cruelty. It established the typical animal abuser as being a male of average intelligence with an early history of antisocial behavior, with a childhood history that is likely to include gross neglect, brutality, rejection and hostility.
1980- Felthous. Studied two groups of male psychiatric patients, one with an assaultive history, and one with a history of animal cruelty. The second group was significantly more likely to have had an alcoholic father, set destructive fires, had enuresis past age five, been separated from the father, and cruelty was more severe towards cats than dogs.
1983- Deviney, Dickert & Lockwood. Studied fifty-three families in New Jersey suffering from domestic violence, and found that 60% reported that pets were also abused and/or neglected.
1985- Kellert & Felthous. Studied the relationship between cruelty to animals and aggression among criminals and noncriminals. They found significantly higher rates of cruelty toward animals among aggressive criminals.
1986- Kellert & Felthous. Follow-up study to predict future violence.
1991- Hickey. Found that in some cases killing animals was to relive the experience of killing human beings.
1993- Ascione. Cruelty to animals is a serious manifestation of psychopathology particularly when paired with other symptoms and a troubled family history.
1995- Schecter & Edleson.
1997- Edleson. Both the 1995 and 1997 studies found that children growing up in homes where there is domestic violence are at risk for psychological disturbance, with one sign being cruelty to animals.
1997- Ascione. This study surveyed thirty-eight women seeking shelter at a safehouse and found that 74% reported having a pet killed and 71% reported the pet(s) were threatened or harmed.
1997- Massachusetts Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals and Northwestern University. Examined criminal records of 153 animal abusers and 153 non-abusers over a twenty-year period. The study found that people who abuse animals are five times more likely to commit violent crimes than non-abusers.


RELEVANT STATISTICS ON DOMESTIC VIOLENCE AND ANIMAL CRUELTY:

71% of abused women report that their batterers have threatened to hurt/kill their pets and have done so.
32% of battered women with children report that their children have hurt or killed pets.
25%-48% of battered women delay leaving an abusive situation for fear of what will happen to her pet if left behind.
40% of battered women report that they have been forced to participate in sexual acts with animals as part of their domestic terrorization.

Sex Offenders:
48% of rapists have committed acts of animal cruelty as children or adolescents.
30% of child molesters have committed acts of animal cruelty as children or adolescents
15% of all active rapists also rape animals.

Child Abuse:
80% of homes in which animal control agencies found abused/neglected pets there had been previous investigations by child welfare agencies of physical abuse and neglect.


USEFUL REFERENCES ON ANIMAL CRUELTY AND INTERPERSONAL VIOLENCE
American Humane Association. (1991). Report on the summit on violence toward children and animals, Nov. 1-3, 1991. Englewood, CO: AHA.
American Humane Association. (1992). Protecting children and animals: Agenda for a non-violent future. Englewood, CO: AHA.
American Humane Association. (1995). A training guide for recognizing and reporting child abuse for animal control officers and humane investigators. Englewood, CO: AHA.
American Psychiatric Association. (1987). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd ed., Washington, D.C.: APA.
American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., Washington, D.C.: APA.
American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. (1996). Should vets tell? Part of what veterinarians do is treat animal victims of violence. Should they also report violence? New York, NY: ASPCA.
American Veterinary Medical Association. (1992). The veterinary service market for companion animals. Schaumburg, IL: AVMA.
Arkow, P. (1994a). Animal abuse and domestic violence: Intake statistics tell a sad story. Latham Letter, XV (2), 17.
Arkow, P. (1994b). Child abuse, animal abuse, and the veterinarian. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 204 (7), 1004-1007.
Ascione, F.R. (1993). Children who are cruel to animals: A review of the research and implications for developmental psychopathology. Anthrozoos, VI (4), 226-247.
Ascione, F.R. (1996). Domestic Violence and Cruelty to Animals. Latham Letter, XVII (1), 1-16.
Ascione, F.R. and Weber, C. (1995). Battered partners shelter survey. Logan, UT: Utah State University.
Beirne, Piers. (1997). Rethinking bestiality: Toward a concept of interspecies sexual assault. Journal of Theoretical Criminology, 1 (3), 317-340.
Boat, B. (1995). The relationship between violence to children and violence to animals: An Ignored Link? Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 10 (4), 229-235.
DeViney, E., Dickert, J., and Lockwood, R. (1983). The care of pets within child abusing families. International Journal for the Study of Animal Problems, 4, 321-329.
Dutton, M.A. (1992). Empowering and healing the battered woman. New York, NY: Springer.
Faller, K.C. (1990). Understanding child sexual maltreatment. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
Felthous, A.R. (1980). Aggression against cats, dogs, and people. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 10 (3), 169-177.
Felthous, A.R. and Kellert, S.R. (1986). Violence against animals and people: Is aggression against living creatures generalized? Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law, 14 (1), 5569.
Finkelhor, D., Williams, L.M., and Burns, N. (1988). Nursery crimes: Sexual abuse in daycare. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
Geddes, V.C. (1977). Enuresis, fire setting and animal cruelty, a follow-up study to review the hypothesis in reference to the prediction of violence. MS Thesis, Department of Criminal Justice, California State University, Long Beach, CA.
Lockwood, R., and Ascione, F.R. (1998). Cruelty to Animals and Interpersonal Violence: Readings in Research and Application. West Layfayette, IN: Purdue University Press.

Local Resources
Emergencies: 911
Animal Cruelty Taskforce Reporting Line: (520) 547-0260
Animal Defense League of Arizona, Southern Arizona Regional Office
PO Box 43026
Tucson, Arizona 85733
(520) 623-3101
Spay & Neuter Hotline: (520) 624-SPAY (7729)
Arizona Department of Agriculture
Animal Services Division
1-800-294-0305
AZDESArizona Child Protective Services
1075 E. Ft. Lowell Road
Tucson, Arizona 85719
(520) 887-7577
Reporting Line: (888) 767-2445
Arizona Department of Environmental Quality
400 W. Congress Street, Suite 433
Tucson, Arizona 85701
(520) 628-5651 or (800) 234-5677
AZ Fish and GameArizona Game and Fish Department
Animal welfare investigations (wild and endangered species, illegal trapping, hunting, or killing of wild animals)
555 N. Greasewood Rd.
Tucson, Arizona 85745
(520) 628-5376

Arizona Greyhound Rescue
8987 E. Tanque Verde Road, Box 153
Tucson, Arizona 85749
(520) 886-7411
Arizona Surpreme Court / Foster Care Review Board
400 W. Congress Street, Suite 341
Tucson, Arizona 85701
(520) 388-4300
AZ VMAArizona Veterinary Medical Association
100 W. Coolidge Street
Phoenix, Arizona 85013
(602) 242-7936
Brewster Center
(520) 881-7201 or (520) 622-6347 (Crisis Line)
Child Support Enforcement
(520) 622-7000
Children’s Action Alliance
2850 N. Swan Road, Suite 160
Tucson, Arizona 85712
(520) 795-4199
Court Appointed Special Advocate (CASA) Program
Pima County Juvenile Court Center
2225 E. Ajo Way
Tucson, Arizona 85713
(520) 740-2060
EMERGE! Center Against Domestic Violence
(520) 795-8001 or 795-4266
Family Advocacy Center (Davis-Monthan AFB)
(520) 228-2104
FARFeminists for Animal Rights (FAR)
P.O. Box 41355
Tucson, Arizona 85717
(520) 825-6852
Help On Call
(520) 323-9373
Hermitage Cat Shelter
P.O. Box 13508
Tucson, Arizona 85732
(520) 571-7839
HSSAHumane Society of Southern Arizona
3450 N. Kelvin Boulevard
Tucson, Arizona 85716
Education & Cruelty Prevention: (520) 321-3704, Ext. 121
Safe Haven Program (for animal victims of domestic violence):
(520) 327-6088
MACCMaricopa County Animal Care and Control
2500 S. 27th Avenue
Phoenix, Arizona 85009
(602) 506-7387
Oasis Program (University of Arizona)
Campus health services program for sexual assault and relationship violence
(520) 626-2051
Pascua Yaqui Police Department
7474 S. Camino de Oste
Tucson, Arizona 85757
(520) 879-5500
Pima Animal Care Center
Animal Welfare Investigations (dogs, cats, other domesticated animals)
4000 N. Silverbell Road
Tucson, Arizona 85745
(520) 243-5900
Pima County SealPima County Adult Probation
Downtown Office: 110 W Congress, 8th Floor, Tucson, Arizona 85701
(520) 740-3800
Eastside Office: 8180 E Broadway, Tucson, Arizona 85710
(520) 290-1535
Southside Office: 2695 E Ajo Way, Tucson, Arizona 85713
(520) 740-4800
Westside Office: 1951 W Grant Road, #180, Tucson, Arizona 85745
(520) 624-0973
Pima County Attorney’s Office
32 North Stone Avenue, Suite 1400
Tucson, Arizona 85701
(520) 740-5600
88CRIME logoPima County Attorney’s Office / 88-CRIME Program
32 North Stone Avenue, Suite 1400
Tucson, Arizona 85701
(520) 882-7463 (88-CRIME)

Pima County Juvenile Court
2225 E. Ajo Way
Tucson, Arizona 85713
(520) 740-2000

Pima County Pre-Trial Services
110 W. Congress Street, 8th Floor
Tucson, Arizona 85701
(520) 740-3310
Pima County Sheriff’s Department
1750 E. Benson Hwy.
Tucson, Arizona 85714
(520) 741-4900
Protection Orders
City of Tucson: (520) 791-4971
South Tucson Police Department
1601 S. 6th Avenue
South Tucson, Arizona 85713
(520) 622-0655
SACASASouthern Arizona Center Against Sexual Assault
(520) 327-1171
Crisis Line: (520) 327-7273
Southern Arizona Legal Aid
64 E. Broadway Boulevard
Tucson, Arizona 85701 (520) 623-9465

City of Tucson sealTucson City Court
103 E. Alameda Street
Tucson, Arizona 85701
(520) 791-4216

Tucson City Court Probation
103 E. Alameda Street
Tucson, Arizona 85701
(520) 791-2581
Tucson City Prosecutor’s Office
103 E. Alameda, Suite 501
Tucson, Arizona 85701
(520) 791-5492
TPDTucson Police Department
270 S. Stone Avenue
Tucson, Arizona 85701
(520) 791-4444
Tucson Wildlife Rehabilitation
PO Box 18320
Tucson, Arizona 85731
(520) 903-1104 or 290-WILD (after hours)
WingspanWingspan (LGBT community services)
425 E. 7th St.
Tucson, AZ 85705
(520) 624-1779
Anti-violence Project Crisis Line: (520) 624-0348 or (800) 553-9387
National Resources

American Animal Hospital Association
12575 W. Bayaud Avenue
Lakewood, Colorado 80228
(303) 986-2800

American Bar Association
Center on Children and the Law / National Legal Resource Center for Child Welfare Services
740 15th Street, NW
Washington, D.C. 20005
(202) 662-1720
American Humane Association
63 Inverness Drive East
Englewood, CO 80112
(303) 792-9900
American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children
350 Popular Avenue
Elmhurst, Illinois 60126
(680) 941-1235 or 1 (877) 402-7722

ASPCAAmerican Society for the Prevention of Cruelty To Animals (ASPCA)
424 E. 92nd St
New York, NY 10128-6804
(212) 876-7700

American Veterinary Medical Association
1931 N. Meacham Road, Suite 100
Schaumburg, IL 60173
(847) 925-8070
Animal Welfare Institute
P.O. Box 3650
Washington, D.C. 20027
(703) 836-4300
Born Free USA
1122 S. Street
Sacramento, CA 95811
(916) 447-3085
Child Welfare Information Gateway
1250 Maryland Avenue SW
Washington, D.C. 20024
(703) 385-2565
Child Welfare League of America
2345 Crystal Drive, Suite 250
Arlington, Virginia 22202
(703) 412-2400
Childhelp: Prevention & Treatment of Child Abuse
1 (800) 4 A CHILD (22-4453)
Children’s Defense Fund
25 E. Street NW
Washington, D.C. 20001
(202) 628-8787
FBIFederal Bureau of Investigation
1 South Church Avenue, Suite 600
Tucson, Arizona 85701
(520) 623-4306
Phoenix office: (602) 279-5511
HSUSHumane Society of the United States
2100 L Street NW
Washington, D.C. 20037
(202) 452-1100
The Latham Foundation
Latham Plaza Building
1826 Clement Avenue
Alameda, CA 94501
(510) 521-0920
National Animal Control Association
P.O. Box 480851
Kansas City, MO 64148
(913) 768-1319
NCMECNational Center for Missing and Exploited Children
699 Prince Street
Alexandria, Virginia 22314-3175
(703) 274-3900
Hotline: (800) 843-5678
National Women's Law Center
11 Dupont Circle NW, Suite 800
Washington, DC 20036
(202) 588-5180
National Center for the Prosecution of Child Abuse
44 Canal Center Plaza, Suite 110
Alexandria, VA 22314
(703) 549-9222
National Domestic Violence Hotline
1-800-799-SAFE (7233)
Parents Anonymous
675 W. Foothill Blvd., Suite 220
Claremont, CA 91711
(909) 621-6184
United States Department of Agriculture
For investigations into violations of the Federal Animal Welfare Act, regulating the use of laboratory animals, etc.
1400 Independence Avenue, SW
Washington, DC 20250
(202) 720-2791

Home
| News | FAQs | Laws | Links | Reporting | Vets | Send Email

Humane Society of Southern Arizona, Attention: ACT, 3450 N. Kelvin Boulevard, Tucson, Arizona 85716
Phone: (520) 321-3704, Ext. 121| Fax: (520) 327-3347
Copyright 2010 by the Humane Society of Southern Arizona, Inc. All Rights Reserved.